Elizabeth Acland

Working principally in watercolour and ink, and to a relatively small scale, I seek to convey my delight in the natural world using strong line and colour. I like to paint quickly and intuitively, in response to the vivid changes in light which define the northern landscapes of Cumbria, Western Scotland and my native Donegal. Most of my pictures start with watercolour which I often enjoy enhancing with Indian ink. The happy accidents which this wet in wet technique inevitably produces often give me a new and exciting direction in which to develop the work. A few of my favourite wild flowers in a jam jar can end up as an image altogether more exotic.

All proceeds from my artwork are donated to the charity “EDUCATE FOR CHANGE” which seeks to improve the life chances of Ugandan AIDS orphans. I currently support two girls at boarding school in Kampala.


Norma K Adamson

Painting started when I retired but there was always a love of art and it’s history. I am a member of the Cumbrian Artists Group. Carlisle Border Art Society & Penrith Art Club. I was Chairman of Carlisle & Border Art Society for a number of years.

In July I attend an annual summer school led by the artist Brian Campbell, enjoying the company of other artists seeing varied styles and use of mediums.

My oil paintings often feature Carlisle, my home city, where I try to find unusual viewpoints. The Solway coast is a source of inspiration both the English & the Scottish coastlines.

Watercolour subjects are often chosen from plants & flowers in the garden.

I exhibit work with clubs & groups to which I belong & enter other exhibitions usually in Cumbria.


Graham Bassett

I am passionate about gardens and gardening and my early work follows the style of impressionists such as Monet and Pissaro.  Further work bordering on abstract include “Kissing Chairs and Acer Branches” depicted through the four seasons and more recently a set of four paintings in a “Through the looking Glass” style showing interior rooms of a house.

Taking exhilerating walks close to my home in Kikby Thore gives me the opportunity to take photographs of the Pennine “Pikes” and “Nicks”; Paintings resulting from these outings will feature in my submission to Art in the Hills

I am putting my picture framing equipment and skills to good use and am pleased to invite enquiries to supply bespoke picture frames, as well as offering a more “standard” framing service. I relish the challenge of creating the unusual; some of the results can be seen in the  E.V.A.N. Gallery and Studios in Penrith




07930 318622


Alison Birkett

Mum of two, wife of one, local teacher and wanting to paint more.

Painting to me is a juggling act, a passion of paintbrushes, taxi runs and work.  Over the years I have found myself painting in the passenger seat while waiting outside Brownies, or finishing off a Christmas card commission while feeding a baby and propping up drooping Helibore with pencils and wires for just a few more hours.  It was during one such occasion I found black coffee makes an effective shadow but dirty paint water doesn’t taste so good!

I have loved art since school but opted for a typing GCSE rather than art, don’t regret this.  However, I am therefore mainly self-taught.  Over the years I have attended  community painting sessions where there is as much crack over the canvass while locals put the village to rights.  While the kids were young I attended a group led by Wigton artist Brian Campbell.  Brian was very much an oil and acrylic artist and challenged me to step outside my comfort of watercolours, working on a grander scale and experimenting with textures.  Acrylic is much more forgiving but oil doesn’t wash out of even my best jeans!

While living and working overseas, it was the energy of the waves and turning tides which captured my watercolour box.  While living on Ascension, I worked alongside Caron King, a glass artist. I discovered kiln fused glass, the simplicity of making mosaics and stained glass.  We worked together to make large community mosaic on the side of our diving hut. The kids would spend a whole morning playing on the beach and for some of that time we would talk about the colours in deeper pools, reflections and refractions.   The paintings from that time which hang on my wall hold the warmth of the South Atlantic in the splashes of my children and in our hearts.  There is still sand in the corners of my wooden box, forever trapped with a leaky masking fluid pen.

Born and bred in the Eden valley my family have always farmed here.  I like to paint outdoors, take photos and bring work home to develop on the dining room table.  I am still a watercolour addict; I love the immediacy of capturing a sky or the shape of a petal.  My daughter is now preparing to take her GCSEs and I’m astounded at the level of skill, creativity and risk taking she shows.  I’m not envious but I’m aiming to travel a little of that journey alongside her and look forward to sharing the dining room table with her and learning more.


Peter Brown

Leisure Painter

I started to paint on retiring to Cumbria about 15 years ago, attending Sarah Colgate’s courses for a couple of I. It is a hobby which I love and if I can sell a few works  to cover costs all the better.

The subject & medium I use depends on my mood at the time. Birds, animals, musicians, acrylic watercolour, pens, pencils . I’m currently getting to grips with a palette knife so watch this space….


Maria Burton

Maria Burton paints evocative, atmospheric landscape paintings that hold drama and intrigue, inviting the viewer to make their own connection to the sense of place.

Maria is an award winning artists based permanently within the EVAN Gallery and Studios, Penrith and is also represented by the Northern Lights Gallery, Keswick. She very much welcomes discussions on potential commissions and currently produces work from Cumbria, Northumberland, west Scotland, Norfolk and Suffolk. Maria’s book, ‘Catching Constant Change’ will be available from June 2019.


John Campbell

John Campbell  b.11/3/1950,  is a watercolour artist who’s inspiration comes from his love of watercolour as a medium and from his love of mountain scenery. He has been a keen and active rock climber and fell walker since he was first bitten by the bug in 1969. Most of his work features the mountain scenery of the lake District, but now and again he’ll venture into other areas of UK and the Alps.


Jane Chantler

Painting is a different way of seeing the world. I promised myself a trip round New Zealand if I could produce an illustrated diary.

I am still learning how to paint and have not had my trip yet.


John Charlesworth

A native of Bury John first moved to the Eden Valley from Lancashire over 20 years ago and apart from spending some time in Dorset has been settled in Cumbria for a number of years and now lives in Appleby.

Described as a surrealist his pictures frequently contain humour and a clear narrative which combine to make a striking image, sometimes reinforced by the shape of the canvas or board. The pictures create a vision of a far-off world which onlookers explore to gain the full meaning.

John has exhibited locally in the Courtyard in Appleby and other galleries as well as more widely across the country.


David Drewery

David Drewery studied for seven years at art school in the early 1960’s specialising in ceramics and sculpture and latterly painting. As well as having his own pottery workshop he designed for most of the major ceramic factories in Stoke on Trent.

He now paints in oils, particularly landscapes of the Cumbrian countryside where he tries to capture a fleeting moment of time on canvas, it could be the way sunlight sparkles on a pool of water for a few moments and then is gone. For an artist very fascinating but difficult.


Lynne Everett

I am an enthusiastic amateur artist gaining experience from various classes, workshops and courses, and inspiration from art books, exhibitions and other artists.

I paint mainly in watercolours and inks and love the way they mix and mingle on the paper. The excitement is in never quite knowing what will happen! However, I also enjoy experimenting and trying new media and methods. I am continually striving to be looser and more interpretive in my work, which is always a challenge.  My subject matter is anything which catches my eye, but mainly landscapes, flowers and the effects of light.

I have exhibited locally with Penrith Art Club, Tirril Art Group and  EVAN, and have taken part in C-Art. I also belong to Culgaith Art Group and a small group called the ButterFactory Artists with whom I have exhibited at Mrs Miller’s in Culgaith and T’Aint Modern in Kirkby Stephen. I have taken part in Art Mart at Langwathby and Art in the Hills at Dufton.

Before moving to Cumbria I participated in several exhibitions around Windsor, including having three solo exhibitions in Windsor Great Park which were very successful.

I hope the viewer gets as much enjoyment from looking at my pictures as I get from painting them.


Roy Fleming

I feel very privileged to have grown up and lived in this beautiful corner of the world which is the Eden Valley, having such a diverse landscape on my doorstep is what’s made me a Landscape Photographer.

When it comes to capturing the moment I shoot medium and large format black and white film with what most people would call old fashioned and cumbersome cameras but for me there’s an honesty and realism in this type of photography, no electronics or clever processing just the very basics of the craft.  This does mean a lot of waiting around for the right conditions/light and carrying heavy equipment but that’s the challenge I enjoy and when on those few occasions all the elements come together it’s quite a special feeling.

I also favour time consuming traditional wet darkroom processes. The print itself is crafted by the “drawing of light” as the original negative is projected and worked onto the photographic paper.

Each hand printed Silver Gelatin print can have up to fifteen separate processes, this makes no two prints identical and they are as unique as the landscape itself.



Sue Foster

Sue Foster paints contemporary landscapes in acrylic. Strong colours and patterns are used to depict the drama and beauty of Cumbria. Living on the lower slopes of Blencathra has been the inspiration for much of her recent work. Her painting is influenced by her geographical background and her travels.

Sue and her work are featured in Terry Abraham’s film, “Life of a mountain – Blencathra ” and her paintings are used in the BBC series, “The A Word”. She exhibits with Keswick Society of Art and has recently had exhibitions at Keswick Museum and Art Gallery.

Studio visits are welcome and can be arranged by appointment.

Contact details :

email        suefosterart@gmail.com

website    www.lakedistrict-art.co.uk

tel              07786385142

Janet Gettins

I have always wanted to paint but never had time until retiring.  I started with watercolour but since joining one or two Art groups and attending various workshops, I prefer to work with Acrylics and Pastels, though I love the translucency and lightness of watercolour.  Flowers, trees and landscapes are my favourite subjects and I never fail to be inspired by the lovely Eden Valley.

I find painting very relaxing and very frustrating in equal measure and strive for that elusive perfect painting.

I owe much to Diane Lawrenson for her teaching, patience, guidance and inspiration.


Christina Hargraves

Christina was brought up on a family farm in the North Pennines. She now lives in a cottage at Lanercost in the Irthing Valley in north east Cumbria. It has a large garden and wildflower meadow from which she draws much of her inspiration.

She had always drawn and painted but it wasn’t until her family had grown up and left home that she took herself off to college. Studying Interior Design first and then an Art and Design course, Christina gained a distinction in every module.

Christina says ‘I am very easily inspired. I just need to go for a walk in the countryside with my little dog and I will get an idea for a painting.  Sometimes I can see a beautiful piece of fabric or wallpaper and will be inspired to paint’.

I love the whole process! Just to have the freedom to pick a bowl of flowers from the garden, mix some paints and then just go for it!

Facebook Christina Hargraves (artist)

Twitter  @christinahargr3




Barbara Hitch

I am a self taught artist, and since moving to Cumbria the natural environment and the changing weather patterns of the Cumbrian fells have been a focus and inspiration of my work. I enjoy the unpredictability of both watercolour and inks, but also work in acrylics and oils and some mixed media pieces.

My style can generally be described as loose, or expressionist, although I occasionally like to take a stylistic approach using bright colours to produce a more primitive result.

I am a member of the Eden Valley Artistic Network and always have some work in the EVAN Gallery in Penrith, as well as being a member of Penrith Art Club and exhibit in their annual exhibition and other local open exhibitions.


Alan Huxtable

Born in Edinburgh in 1945,  he is a graduate of Edinburgh College of Art and Edinburgh University. While there he studied woven tapestry, stained glass, mural painting, drawing and painting. He had the good fortune to be taught by William Gillies, Robin Philipson, James Cumming, Elizabeth Blackadder and others.

He spent many years teaching Art to 8 -18 year olds in a large Edinburgh school.

Following his retirement in 1995 he moved to Cumbria with his wife where his main subjects changed from the Figure to predominately Landscape work.

His work is in Art collections across the UK and abroad.


David D Jackson

I was very fortunate to be born bred and buttered in Cumberland and my passion for landscape photography was ignited by two influences. The first, and most important, was my Dad. By lending me his old Agfa camera at the age of 13, setting up a makeshift darkroom and taking me up Latrigg in the dead of night to take a photo of the lights of Keswick, he introduced me to a wonderful hobby. The second element is the privilege of living in the Lake District at Castlerigg, surely one of the most beautiful places on earth.


Peter Koch-Osborne

My first attempt at art since junior school was some 30 years later!  I had later worked in technical design in the building services industry.  Upon early retirement, the draughting skills learnt at work were put to good use hand writing and illustrating a series of mountainbiking and walking guides which I researched and wrote during my 12-year interlude in the Scottish Highlands from 1994 to 2006. Here I also developed my interest in photography.

A move to Edenhall, near Penrith, Cumbria prompted me to attend a couple of courses in drawing, and later in watercolour techniques.

These built on my previous drawing board skills turning what I used to do for a living into a pleasurable hobby.  As can be seen from samples of my work I have now settled on a detailed style which originates from my engineering background.  I work mainly in ordinary pencil and watercolour pencil; sometimes using “Inktense” acrylic ink pencils; paint; coloured pencils; and black ink.  Also, the odd spot of white gouache is used to pick out highlights.  Subject matter ranges from railway images to just about anything requiring a detailed technique.

Email:          peterkochosborne@gmail.com

Telephone:  I can be contacted on 01768 881274


Rosemary Koch-Osborne

I moved into the Eden Valley in 2006 and until that time, photography had been my main area of artistic interest and it has been a great help with regard to my observational skills and making me more aware of composition and tone.

I had never done any drawing or picked up a paintbrush in my life but decided to join a drawing class in Penrith late in 2006 and have never looked back!  I was enthralled by what one could achieve with a pencil, so extended my knowledge by joining a watercolour group and also by attending workshops involving ink and other mediums.

My main love is attempting to capture the moods of the landscape in watercolour (sometimes with a gesso base).  I prefer dramatic, “lonely” landscapes, with perhaps an odd building to suggest habitation at some point in time.  Scotland and the Northern Fells often feature in my paintings.

I also like to do detailed drawings of buildings in ink, often in Penrith, Staithes or Whitby.  Sometimes I use colour in these images and other times I prefer to concentrate on tone and contrast to capture the feel of the place.

I exhibit at local exhibitions, including Art Mart and Art in the Hills and am also a member of Penrith and Gamblesby Art Groups and also contribute to their annual exhibitions.

I can be contacted on 01768 881274 or email: rosemaryko1948@gmail.com


Kay Leech

Kay Leech is an award winning mixed media textile artist whose work combines traditional and experimental textile techniques with paint, print and collage.    In 2018 she was awarded the first Friends of Higham Scholarship which culminated in ‘Connections’ an exhibition linking art and geology through textiles.  In 2019 Kay was awarded a silver in the Contemporary Quilt category at the Scottish Quilt Show for her quilt ‘A Journey Through Time’ depicting the geological time scale   She is a member of the Eden Valley Artistic Network and ButterFactory artists.

Kay runs a range of textile workshops details of which can be found on her website www.kayleech.co.uk


Wilf Maw

Wilf was born in the north-east of England and worked as a miner in Northumberland for 20 years. After being made redundant he moved to Cumbria where he retrained and secured full-time employment.  Wilf moved to Dufton in 1995 to enable him to indulge in his love of outdoor pursuits.

He took up metal sculpturing as a form of therapy to help him rehabilitate after a serious accident. The sculptures are all made from recycled metal, including pieces of chain, other bicycle parts and cutlery.

His beautiful and innovative creations reflect the current desire to re-cycle otherwise waste materials to give them a second life.

Wilf was the winner of the ‘Best Artist in Show’ at the first Art in the Hills.


Anna McKay

 As a water-colourist I enjoy experimenting with texture and colour and the unpredictability of the paint on the paper. The quality of the light in the Eden Valley and on the Solway coast excites me; especially the reflection and refraction of light in and on the water and through the trees. My work tries to recreate that feeling of fragmented shimmering light.  I paint with watercolour, salt, sand, inks and pencils and anything that comes to hand.

Recent work includes the end papers for the children’s book Katie and the and the cover illustration for Joe and Storm Desmond ( Joellen publications 2016) in collaboration with the author Susan Fox and illustrator Irene Sanderson.

Recent exhibitions include Spirit of the Eden 2016 and Artex 2016,  Alex boathouse Talkin 2016 and C Art as part of Unstationary Artists.


Karen McSkimming

I am a self taught Scottish artist living in Cumbria. I love painting, I love animals so together they make ‘Artful Regards’. All eyes speak and are the windows to the soul! I always work off photographs and like to take my own when possible. I like to meet the pet and get a feel for their personality. When that’s not possible, I ask for a favourite photo to be sent. The better the photograph, the better the painting!

I can put my artistic hand to anything. Flowers, tractors, landscapes ….. Any commission is a great challenge to me.

I am proud to be a member of EVAN (Eden Valley Artistic Network). I have my paintings hanging in ‘Evan Gallery & Studios’, Corney Square, Penrith. This year I was lucky to be picked to be on the BBC1 show ‘Home Is Where The Art Is’ with Nick Knowles. Great experience and opportunity to showcase my work.

I am at Lowther Show in August with Dog Food specialists ‘Skinners’

Website ~ www.artfulregards.co.uk

Find me on Facebook ~ ‘Artful Regards’

Follow me on ‘Instagram’   ………..Thank You


Tricia Meynell

Specialising in abstract photography, Tricia’s work crosses the borders between photography and painting. Inspired by the wonderful scenery around her, she strives to make images which reflect that beauty in an unusual way until the images are more imaginary than factual. It’s all about the light!

Her work is often studied in local schools as part of the GCSE & A Level photography curriculum and she has taught on the foundation photography course at the University of Cumbria. For those beginning to explore the art of digital photography, Tricia also offers bespoke courses to small groups or individuals.


Ann Mounsey

I’ve always been interested in art. After leaving school I went to Hartlepool College of Art age 17 and later did a foundation course at 25 years old at Sunderland College of Art.

I am currently a member of  Appleby Art Group and have recently joined Penrith Art Club. Over the last year I have mainly been interested in portraiture and figure drawing. My work has been in various mediums including pencil, ink, pastels and watercolour.


Ray Ogden

Ray is an illustrator printmaker based in Culgaith, in the Eden Valley.

Drawing with a graphics tablet and natural media software, he interweaves visual conventions, in the construction of his prints. Underlying abstract qualities also lie behind the seemingly figurative imagery of his work, which often features stylised bird and animal motifs. The prints could be described as a form of graphic theatre, inhabited centre stage, by characters drawn from the natural world. References to Ray’s interest in indigenous people’s art forms are usually evident, as too, in one form or another, is a fascination with the relationship between illusion and reality in the drawn image.

The full story, and a portfolio of images can be seen on Ray’s website, www.rayogden.com


Val Powell

Val Paints Landscapes and Still Life mostly in oils.  She is inspired by the energy and patterns of sky, fell or water: always trying to capture in paint the emotions of a moment leaving a little for the viewer to explore.

A member of the Eden Valley Artistic Network (EVAN) some of her work can be seen in the EVAN Gallery and Studios, 4 Corney Place, Penrith CA11 7PX  or contact her via valpowell101@gmail.com or 07708215027


Sarah Reid

Sarah Reid is an artist based in Penrith, Cumbria, an ideal base to explore the Lakes, Cumbrian coastline and the Eden Valley, which so inspired her work. Sarah is fascinated by the ever changing light upon the landscape and our place within it. Working primarily in pastel, her work captures an emotional response to the scenery and invites the viewer to explore the scene – drawn in by unexpected hints of light and colour, strong lines and bold stripes. Sarah also has a love for 60s/70s kitsch and enjoys sharing her sense of fun with her kitsch inspired ‘Book of Fish’ series and Sylvac inspired still life painting.

Sarah currently exhibits at the EVAN Gallery, 4 Corney Place, Penrith.

Website: www.redrawstudios.co.uk

Email@ minidaff@gmail.com


Christine Rose

Lady in the Cottage Art by Christine Rose

My very early years from around 5 years old were spent painting and drawing, sewing and all manner of creative stuff!  Not progressing to Art College after my A level art, after being told that when I finished college all I would do is teach; I found myself being creative in other ways.  I designed and made clothes, textile gifts, garden design and planting schemes, plus interior design.  On retirement or rather  semi retirement, over the last 7 years, picked up a paintbrush again and enjoy painting with watercolours and mixed media.

My passion is painting flowers in an abstract way…my favourite range is named “gone to seed”.  I took inspiration from Anne Blockley and Jean Haynes.

I love the loose abstract style with a hint of the subject matter in rich colour ways.

I now run arts and craft workshops from my cabin set in my award winning garden and this season focusing on textile wood block printing workshops, all run at weekends or by prior arrangements.

Details for these or my art can be obtained by emailing me at cerosedesigns@hotmail.com or Tel 07540130291.


Margaret Shaw

I paint and draw because I enjoy turning blank canvas, paper and more recently stone into a unique artwork.  The media I use depends on the subject and the effects I want to achieve and how much I want to experiment.  My artworks are inspired from places I’ve been, things I’ve seen or experienced and added imagination.

Some photo shoots are planned – taking favourite places, subjects and conditions – light, shadows, colours, silhouettes, flowers and the occasional sheep.  Others are opportunistic by carrying a camera with me most of the time.

I like to try new things and continue learning to develop my skills.  I’m aware that my artistic journey has some way to go – it will probably never end.


Isabella Lepri Simpson

Isabella is a studio potter based in North London and soon to be in Dufton.

She trained as an anthropologist, but in in 2010 she fell in love with ceramics and has never looked back. She studied Ceramics at City Lit in London. She makes stoneware vessels, both functional and decorative. Her work is intuitive and organic and her shapes develop in an on-going, tactile conversation with the material.

In 2017, she was rated one of the top 20 UK ceramicists and potters by MakeItBritish. She is a founding member of the Muswell Hill Creatives makers collective.


Sara Sylvester

Originally from Scotland,  I became an ‘army wife’ and have travelled a fair bit, but  now, with husband and current three cats, I’m more than happy to call Cumbria my ‘forever’ home.

The massive skies, shapes of clouds and weather, the wonderful shapes and colours of nature on the fells and the ancient landscape around never cease to inspire me!

I’m an intuitive artist, always painted and I go along to as many workshops as I can to learn new techniques and to try out new media and products. My preferences are for oils and acrylics but I occasionally have a little dabble with watercolours and soft pastels. Anything to do with shapes and colours!

I paint from a conglomeration of memories, sights, smells and shapes – moving the paint around (usually with a palette knife) until I find a pleasing result. If the finished piece reminds you of a favourite place or memory, then that’s a bonus!

In the past, I’ve sold my work through several galleries in the North of Scotland and from local exhibitions. My work has travelled to Canada and New Zealand as well as to other areas of the UK.

As well as owning and exhibiting in T’aint Modern in Kirkby Stephen, I’m a member of EVAN – Eden Valley Artistic Network, and I exhibit some work in Penrith.


Steven Taylor Lake District Water Colour

Steve was born in Barrow-in Furness and grew up walking the Lake district fells, something he has done all his life. This love of the outdoors combined with the drawing lessons from his dad developed in to a love of drawing and painting in the outdoors.

After graduation from Imperial college, London as a biologist, Steve became a qualified teacher. He now works part –time as a senior lecturer in leadership and as an executive coach and as a professional artist.

Both Caroline and Steve work out of their home offering bed and breakfast accommodation to their art clients. Art courses are taught in their Eden Valley home near Ormside in a purpose built Art studio and small gallery in the garden which is ideal for one to one and small group art coaching. For larger courses the village hall in Ormside is a perfect place to learn and work.

Steve has painted all over the world and especially enjoys plein air water colour painting and drawing. He specialises in teaching watercolour landscapes and has a passion for painting wildlife.


Bill Taylor

A teacher and artist who has lived in the Eden Valley for many years, Bill has exhibited his work widely including:

Sunday Times Watercolour Exbn,      Mall Gallery

Britain’s Painters                                    ,,      ,,

The Discerning Eye                                ,,      ,,

British Watercolour Society Ilkley, Prize winner.  Silver Longboat Exbn., Darlington prize winner.

Centenary Open Exbn.,Bolton, prize winner.  Cumbrian Open Exbn., Up Front Gallery  prize winner

Laing Open Exbn.,Newcastle.  Teesside Contemporary Open Middlesboro’. International Pastel Exbn.,  Denver Colorado

Published work;

Painting Shapes and Edges                  Quarto Publications

Encyclopaedia of Watercolour Landscape   ,,       ,,

Art of Drawing and Painting                           ,,       ,,

Light in Watercolour                              Studio Vista

Painting in Gouache                                   ,,          ,,

Drawing Basics                                            ,,          ,,

Landscape Drawing and Painting         Readers’ Digest


Simon Whalley

Simon Whalley is a professional photographer and artist, starting to experiment with mixed media formats. His work seeks to connect people with nature and to challenge environmentally destructive behaviour. He uses ‘magical realism’ a genre of narrative fiction, expressing a primarily realistic view of the world while also adding or revealing magical elements.

He has an MA in Photography and has produced 4 books. He works in the outdoors and has a gallery at Brougham Hall, CA10 2DE




Jo Bramley-Wright

Jo Bramley-Wright’s work focuses on the natural landscape and journeys made within it.   Series of work evoke the pages of a diary often punctuated by a single bird moving through the space.

The layering of both materials and image is a key theme running through the work both in the processes and through the use of transparent or opaque materials.  The resulting work imitates the space within the scene, and the way some parts are naturally concealed from view, with the combination of the obvious against the obscured.